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The goal of this paper is to examine meaning as a component of creativity. We take a demand-based approach for conceptualizing meaning, and propose that it emerges from user needs instead of emerging from already existing creative solutions. Meaning is proposed as a third component of creativity, alongside novelty and usefulness. We test this proposition in a pre-study, and two empirical studies. In the pre-study, designers define creativity and provide examples of solutions that they deem creative. The results of the pre-study yield a 24-item scale for assessing creativity. Then, we conduct two empirical studies, in which we utilize the created scale for measuring creativity, and for examining the components arising thereof. In the first study, we ask creators (design engineering students) to generate ideas for one of two design briefs. Afterwards, creators were asked to rate their own creations, on the 24-item creativity scale. Here, we find a four-factor solution for creative outcomes, consisting of the dimensions novelty, usefulness, cleverness, and meaning. In the second study, we ask independent evaluators (individuals with related and relevant degrees) to assess the creators’ work on the creativity scale. Here, we find a three-factor solution for creative outcomes, consisting of the dimensions novelty, usefulness, and meaning. In both studies, meaning emerged as a separate component of creativity. Additionally, in both studies, it accounted for variance that was unaccounted for by novelty and usefulness, thereby increasing the overall explanatory power of creative solutions. These findings strongly speak of meaning as a third component of creativity.

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Ideation is simultaneously one of the most investigated and most intriguing aspects of design. The reasons for this attention are partly due to its importance in design and innovation, and partly due to an array of conflicting results and explanations. In this study, we develop an integrative perspective on individual ideation by combining cognitive and process-based views via dual-process theory. We present a protocol and network analysis of 31 ideation sessions, based on novice designers working individually, revealing the emergence of eight idea archetypes and a number of process features. Based on this, we propose the Dual-Process Ideation (DPI) Model, which links idea creation and idea judgement. This explains a number of previously contradictory results and offers testable predictive power.

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Building on the assumption that the physical environment can have an influence on the creativity of designers and design students in particular, the aim of this paper is to provide theoretical propositions and evidences for this relationship. We develop various propositions about the influence of physical environments on creativity, based on eight expert interviews and supported by literature. A particular focus was given to the environments of design educational institutions. We present a summary of the main insights
and visualize the developed propositions as a causal graph addressing how space influences creativity. These propositions can be regarded as a first step towards a theory of creativity-supporting learning environments and they can serve as a reference when designing or adjusting creative learning spaces.

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Creativity is quintessential in design ideation, as it fuels innovation in an ever-changing world. However, designers often experience states of being stuck and fixated, either on their own solutions, on examples or on the design process. A think-aloud protocol study and interviews were conducted with 31 novice designers in order to capture their strategies to cope with fixation and other types of hindrances to creativity. The findings corroborate past research on design fixation, adding a qualitative perspective to the existing growing body of knowledge on this topic. Furthermore, the study reveals the opportunistic and sometimes unexpected strategies designers apply in order to continue ideation. This paper contributes to the understanding of the opportunistic behaviour of designers in ideation and has implications for the study of design fixation and other barriers to creativity at the methodological level.

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The launch of the tenth volume of this journal (International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation) presented an important opportunity to reflect on what has been done and, more importantly, on what is expected of the field of design creativity and innovation research in the years ahead. For this reason, we invited all current members of the Editorial and Steering Advisory Boards of IJDCI to share their expert point of view and expectations in a free style or format (but within a maximum length of words).

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The question of how the physical work environment can affect creativity is gaining interest among companies and educational institutions. This paper introduces ten propositions outlining possible relationships between spatial characteristics and creative work. The propositions were developed following a grounded-theory approach based on nine expert interviews that provide insight on the topic from the perspective of different creative fields—namely, urban planning, architecture, interior design, office planning, furniture design, industrial design, design thinking, innovation, and fine arts. We focused on both educational and practice environments within the creative sector. For each proposition, we provide links to supporting literature. We present a summary of the main insights and visualize the developed propositions as a set of causal graphs. The propositions have implications for both research and practice: on the one hand, they can be regarded as the first step toward a theory of creativity-supporting work environments; on the other hand, they can serve as a reference when designing or adjusting creative workspaces.

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Creativity is one of the vital 21st century skills. As the subject of a large academic and practitioner community since 1950, there are literally hundreds of books and thousands of techniques on creativity. In this book, this body of knowledge is boiled down for modern scholars and facilitators to one framework called iCPS, integrated Creative Problem Solving.

For the techniques, the book focuses on techniques for groups and details 40 essential ones. This is the main part of the book. The set of 40 covers all the techniques in the field and offers the building blocks to construct group sessions. Guidelines for organizing sessions will help the reader position the building blocks and make the design for a smooth process. The website will offer even more details and practicalities to run magic sessions and courses.

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